The medical data science group carries out research at the intersection of machine learning and medicine with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis and treatment outcome to the benefit of the care and wellbeing of patients. As medical and health data is heterogenous and multimodal, our research deals with the advancement of machine learning models and methodologies to address the specific challenges of the medical domain. Specifically, we work in the areas of multimodal data integration, structure detection, and trustworthy (or transparent) models. The challenge lies not only in developing fast, robust and reliable systems but also in systems that are easy to interpret and usable in clinical practice.


Wie KI helfen kann, angeborene Herzfehler zu erkennen

Julia Vogt writes on netzwoche.ch about how artificial intelligence can help to recognize heart problems in newborns using Echocardiogram videos.

Read more

Pediatric personalized research network Switzerland (SwissPedHealth) – a Joint Pediatric National Data Stream (NDS) accepted for funding

In 2021, SPHN and PHRT jointly launched the call for “National Data Streams” (NDS). After a two-step evaluation procedure, 4 NDS projects have been…

Read more

ETH News: Portrait Article of Dr. Alexander Marx

In this portrait article, Alexander Marx talks about his research at the intersection of Medical Data Science and Causality.

Read more


Abstract

Background: Arm use metrics derived from wrist-mounted movement sensors are widely used to quantify the upper limb performance in real-life conditions of individuals with stroke throughout motor recovery. The calculation of real-world use metrics, such as arm use duration and laterality preferences, relies on accurately identifying functional movements. Hence, classifying upper limb activity into functional and non-functional classes is paramount. Acceleration thresholds are conventionally used to distinguish these classes. However, these methods are challenged by the high inter and intra-individual variability of movement patterns. In this study, we developed and validated a machine learning classifier for this task and compared it to methods using conventional and optimal thresholds.Methods: Individuals after stroke were video-recorded in their home environment performing semi-naturalistic daily tasks while wearing wrist-mounted inertial measurement units. Data were labeled frame-by-frame following the Taxonomy of Functional Upper Limb Motion definitions, excluding whole-body movements, and sequenced into 1-s epochs. Actigraph counts were computed, and an optimal threshold for functional movement was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses on group and individual levels. A logistic regression classifier was trained on the same labels using time and frequency domain features. Performance measures were compared between all classification methods.Results: Video data (6.5 h) of 14 individuals with mild-to-severe upper limb impairment were labeled. Optimal activity count thresholds were ≥20.1 for the affected side and ≥38.6 for the unaffected side and showed high predictive power with an area under the curve (95% CI) of 0.88 (0.87,0.89) and 0.86 (0.85, 0.87), respectively. A classification accuracy of around 80% was equivalent to the optimal threshold and machine learning methods and outperformed the conventional threshold by ∼10%. Optimal thresholds and machine learning methods showed superior specificity (75–82%) to conventional thresholds (58–66%) across unilateral and bilateral activities.Conclusion: This work compares the validity of methods classifying stroke survivors’ real-life arm activities measured by wrist-worn sensors excluding whole-body movements. The determined optimal thresholds and machine learning classifiers achieved an equivalent accuracy and higher specificity than conventional thresholds. Our open-sourced classifier or optimal thresholds should be used to specify the intensity and duration of arm use.

Authors

Johannes Pohl, Alain Ryser, Janne Marieke Veerbeek, Geert Verheyden, Julia Elisabeth Vogt, Andreas Rüdiger Luft, Chris Awai Easthope

Submitted

Frontiers in Physiology

Date

28.09.2022

LinkDOI

Abstract

Background: Stroke leads to motor impairment which reduces physical activity, negatively affects social participation, and increases the risk of secondary cardiovascular events. Continuous monitoring of physical activity with motion sensors is promising to allow the prescription of tailored treatments in a timely manner. Accurate classification of gait activities and body posture is necessary to extract actionable information for outcome measures from unstructured motion data. We here develop and validate a solution for various sensor configurations specifically for a stroke population.Methods: Video and movement sensor data (locations: wrists, ankles, and chest) were collected from fourteen stroke survivors with motor impairment who performed real-life activities in their home environment. Video data were labeled for five classes of gait and body postures and three classes of transitions that served as ground truth. We trained support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) models to identify gait bouts only or gait and posture. Model performance was assessed by the nested leave-one-subject-out protocol and compared across five different sensor placement configurations.Results: Our method achieved very good performance when predicting real-life gait versus non-gait (Gait classification) with an accuracy between 85% and 93% across sensor configurations, using SVM and LR modeling. On the much more challenging task of discriminating between the body postures lying, sitting, and standing as well as walking, and stair ascent/descent (Gait and postures classification), our method achieves accuracies between 80% and 86% with at least one ankle and wrist sensor attached unilaterally. The Gait and postures classification performance between SVM and LR was equivalent but superior to kNN.Conclusion: This work presents a comparison of performance when classifying Gait and body postures in post-stroke individuals with different sensor configurations, which provide options for subsequent outcome evaluation. We achieved accurate classification of gait and postures performed in a real-life setting by individuals with a wide range of motor impairments due to stroke. This validated classifier will hopefully prove a useful resource to researchers and clinicians in the increasingly important field of digital health in the form of remote movement monitoring using motion sensors.

Authors

Johannes Pohl, Alain Ryser, Janne Marieke Veerbeek, Geert Verheyden, Julia Elisabeth Vogt, Andreas Rüdiger Luft, Chris Awai Easthope

Submitted

Frontiers in Physiology

Date

26.09.2022

LinkDOI

Abstract

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in newborns and infants is a complex condition associated with several pulmonary, cardiac, and systemic diseases contributing to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, accurate and early detection of PH is crucial for successful management. Using echocardiography, the primary diagnostic tool in pediatrics, human assessment is both time-consuming and expertise-demanding, raising the need for an automated approach. In this work, we present an interpretable multi-view video-based deep learning approach to predict PH for a cohort of 194 newborns using echocardiograms. We use spatio-temporal convolutional architectures for the prediction of PH from each view, and aggregate the predictions of the different views using majority voting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for an automated assessment of PH in newborns using echocardiograms. Our results show a mean F1-score of 0.84 for severity prediction and 0.92 for binary detection using 10-fold cross-validation. We complement our predictions with saliency maps and show that the learned model focuses on clinically relevant cardiac structures, motivating its usage in clinical practice.

Authors

Hanna Ragnarsdottir, Laura Manduchi, Holger Michel, Fabian Laumer, Sven Wellmann, Ece Özkan Elsen, Julia E. Vogt

Submitted

DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition

Date

20.09.2022

DOI

Abstract

Deep neural networks for image-based screening and computer-aided diagnosis have achieved expert-level performance on various medical imaging modalities, including chest radiographs. Recently, several works have indicated that these state-of-the-art classifiers can be biased with respect to sensitive patient attributes, such as race or gender, leading to growing concerns about demographic disparities and discrimination resulting from algorithmic and model-based decision-making in healthcare. Fair machine learning has focused on mitigating such biases against disadvantaged or marginalised groups, mainly concentrating on tabular data or natural images. This work presents two novel intra-processing techniques based on fine-tuning and pruning an already-trained neural network. These methods are simple yet effective and can be readily applied post hoc in a setting where the protected attribute is unknown during the model development and test time. In addition, we compare several intra- and post-processing approaches applied to debiasing deep chest X-ray classifiers. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first efforts studying debiasing methods on chest radiographs. Our results suggest that the considered approaches successfully mitigate biases in fully connected and convolutional neural networks offering stable performance under various settings. The discussed methods can help achieve group fairness of deep medical image classifiers when deploying them in domains with different fairness considerations and constraints.

Authors

Ricards Marcinkevics, Ece Özkan Elsen, Julia E. Vogt

Submitted

The Seventh Machine Learning for Healthcare Conference, MLHC 2022

Date

05.08.2022

LinkCode

Abstract

We propose a novel anomaly detection method for echocardiogram videos. The introduced method takes advantage of the periodic nature of the heart cycle to learn three variants of a variational latent trajectory model (TVAE). While the first two variants (TVAE-C and TVAE-R) model strict periodic movements of the heart, the third (TVAE-S) is more general and allows shifts in the spatial representation throughout the video. All models are trained on the healthy samples of a novel in-house dataset of infant echocardiogram videos consisting of multiple chamber views to learn a normative prior of the healthy population. During inference, maximum a posteriori (MAP) based anomaly detection is performed to detect out-of-distribution samples in our dataset. The proposed method reliably identifies severe congenital heart defects, such as Ebstein’s Anomaly or Shone-complex. Moreover, it achieves superior performance over MAP-based anomaly detection with standard variational autoencoders when detecting pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dilation. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method enables interpretable explanations of its output through heatmaps highlighting the regions corresponding to anomalous heart structures.

Authors

Alain Ryser, Laura Manduchi, Fabian Laumer, Holger Michel, Sven Wellmann, Julia E. Vogt

Submitted

The Seventh Machine Learning for Healthcare Conference, MLHC 2022

Date

05.08.2022

LinkCode